Somerville Collegepart of the University of Oxfordone of the first women's colleges in England In the 19th century the Church of England sponsored most formal education until the government established free, compulsory education towards the end of that century. University College London was established as the first secular college in England, open to students of all religions or nonefollowed by King's College London ; the two institutions formed the University of London. Durham University was also established in the early nineteenth century. Towards the end of the century, the " redbrick " universities, new public universities, were founded.
Norden Overview Portugal, officially called the Portuguese Republic, is the westernmost country of continental Europe. It is bordered on the east and north by Spain, with which it shares the Iberian Peninsula, and on the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean.
It is about the size of Ohio, having an area of 35, square miles 92, square kilometersand measuring miles at its longest point and miles at its widest. Major cities are the capital Lisbon, Porto, and Amadora.
However, twothirds of the people live in rural areas. Nearly 99 percent of the population is of Portuguese origin; the largest ethnic minorities include Cape Verdeans, Brazilians, the Spanish, British, and Americans. Although there is no official religion in Portugal, There are small minorities of Jews and Muslims.
Phoenicians and Carthaginians later established themselves in southern Portugal. After the Second Punic War B. The Lusitanians, a warlike Celtic tribe under the leadership of Viriathus, fiercely opposed the Roman armies, but the latter triumphed.
Roman contributions to Portugal included roads, buildings, and the Latin language, from which Portuguese developed. In the fifth century A. In the Muslims invaded the peninsula, and Christian forces spent the next years trying to expel them. By his kingdom, occupying the northern third of present-day Portugal, was recognized as autonomous and separate from Castile.
He was responsible for moving the capital from Coimbra to Lisbon, for lessening the power of the church in his land, and for convoking the Cortes at Leiria at which the commoners were represented for the first time.
His wife, Elizabeth, who worked to maintain peace in Portugal, was known as the Holy Queen rainha santa and was later canonized as St. There was disagreement as to whether Beatriz should be heiress to the throne, and in the Cortes chose John, an illegitimate son of Peter I the Cruela former king of Portugal, to rule as John I.
John was Master of a religious-military order, the Order of Aviz. With the peninsula now reconquered from the Muslims, the Portuguese drive for expansion continued out of a desire to explore unknown lands, to seek a trade route for transporting spices from India, and to spread the Christian religion.
Henry financed the expeditions that discovered Madeira and the Azores; these islands were uninhabited but were quickly colonized, and they still belong to Portugal. As part of his marriage contract with Isabella, he was required to rid Portugal of the Jews who had taken refuge there after being expelled from Spain.
A few were allowed to emigrate, but most were forcibly converted to Christianity.St Edmundsbury in the late Twentieth Century. Find out about our local history since Selected Moments of the 20th Century A work in progress edited by Daniel Schugurensky.
00s 10s 20s 30s 40s 50s 60s 70s 80s 90s. This is a site about education during the . The history of education in England is documented from Saxon settlement of England, and made provision for the creation of special schools. Education and policy in England in the twentieth century ().
excerpt; Barker, R. Education and Politics (). The Shape of Twentieth Century Economic History J. Bradford DeLong. NBER Working Paper No. Issued in February NBER Program(s):Monetary Economics, Development of the American Economy The history of the twentieth century can be summarized excessively briefly in five propositions: First, that the history of the twentieth century was overwhelmingly economic history.
The history of medicine shows how societies have changed in their approach to illness and disease from ancient times to the present.
Early medical traditions include those of Babylon, China, Egypt and India. The Greeks introduced the concepts of medical diagnosis, prognosis, and advanced medical timberdesignmag.com Hippocratic Oath was written in ancient Greece in the 5th century .
Despite the opposition to reform embedded in the document, education advocates succeeded in accomplishing some school improvements in the early twentieth century, including adopting uniform textbooks, redrawing system boundaries along natural municipal and county lines, and standardizing superintendent duties.