The origin of our species has long been a compelling focus of human curiosity, and the record of past climate change and its impacts on hominin evolution provide an ideal context for considering potential intersections between future climate change and the responses of our species to such environmental changes. Of all the records of fossil organisms, the one offered by paleoanthropology is unique for its rich evidence of behavioral and ecological interactions derived from hominin Box 1. This fossil record contains a history of critical evolutionary events that have ultimately shaped and defined what it means to be human, including the origins of bipedalism; the emergence of our genus Homo; the first use of stone tools; increases in brain size; and the emergence of Homo sapiens, more advanced tools, and culture.
Gaining Access to Diverse Foods The first known stone tools date to around 2. Making and using stone tools also conferred versatility in how hominin toolmakers interacted with and adjusted to their surroundings.
Simple toolmaking by stone-on-stone fracturing of rock conferred a selective advantage in that these hominin toolmakers possessed sharp flakes for cutting and hammerstones that were useful in pounding and crushing foods.
Basic stone tools thus greatly enhanced the functions of teeth in a way that allowed access to an enormous variety of foods. These foods included meat from large animals, which was sliced from carcasses using sharp edges of flakes.
Bones were broken open using stones to access the marrow inside. Other tools could be used to grind plants or to sharpen sticks to dig for tubers. Tool use would have made it easier for hominins to obtain food from a variety of different sources. Tool use would have widened the diet of hominins.
Meat, in particular, is a food that was obtainable in equivalent ways, with similar nutritional value, in virtually any type of habitat that early humans encountered. Although making simple toolmaking may have developed originally in one type of environment, the carrying of stone tools over considerable distances — and becoming reliant on stone technology — may have arisen due to the benefits of altering the diet as environments changed.
The oldest known stone technology — called Oldowan toolmaking — involved carrying rock over several kilometers and is found associated with a variety of ancient habitats. Redistributing stone and other resources, such as parts of animal carcasses, by transporting them may have helped hominins cope with variable habitats.
The Expanding World of Early Homo As predicted by the variability selection hypothesis, hominins were not found solely in one kind of habitat, but rather in a variety. A major signal of the ability to tolerate different environments was the dispersal of the genus early Homo beyond Africa into Asian environments.
Early evidence of the diversity of Homo erectus environments in Asia includes the following sites: Dmanisi, Republic of Georgia, 1. This site has grasslands surrounded by mountains with forests. Hominins had access to lava as a raw material for tools.
This site, located near an ancient lake, had a mixture of habitats with grasslands, bushlands and forests. Nihewan Basin, China, 1. The Nihewan sites were also near a lake. Hominin toolmakers experienced many changes in vegetation over time, with habitats ranging from forests to grasslands.focuses on the factors controlling exchanges of energy, materials, & organisms across multiple ecosystems.
The changing angle of the sun over the course of the year affects local environments. major life zones characterized by vegetation type (in terrestrial biomes) or by the physical environment (in aquatic biomes).
Evolution is the process of change in all forms of life over generations, and evolutionary biology is the study of how evolution occurs. Biological populations evolve through genetic changes that correspond to changes in the organisms ' observable traits.
Home» Human Evolution Research» Climate and Human Evolution» Climate Effects on Human Evolution. China, Million years ago. The Nihewan sites were also near a lake. Hominin toolmakers experienced many changes in vegetation over time, with habitats ranging from forests to grasslands.
Introduction to Human Evolution; Lesson. Newborough Warren is a large calcareous west coast UK dune system, which has experienced rapid vegetation spread in the last 70 years.
Information from two high resolution chronosequences for dry and wet dune habitats, 0– years, was used to answer the following questions: Does climate. Weather, topography and vegetation are the most important factors that inﬂuence light intensities.
We demonstrated their eﬀect on the measurement of day⁄night length, time of . Outline on Factors for Vegetation Evolution Over Time Uploaded by ihatesuchin on Jul 05, Outline the factors that are responsible for vegetation change over time Vegetation develops in many different and varied environments with each environment having different effects on .