This time, choose the best simile to complete the sentences. If you can't read the whole of the sentences in the boxes, hover your mouse over them. Column A In winter our lane is as timid as a mouse. It was a windy day and the waves were like an ice rink.
This Access Center resource is intended to help teachers implement writing instruction that will lead to better writing outcomes for students with and without writing difficulties.
We provide research-based recommendations, activities, and materials to effectively teach writing to the wide range of students educators often find in their classrooms. There are three apparent reasons why so many children and youth find writing challenging. Second, the profile of the typical classroom in the United States has undergone dramatic changes in the recent past.
This increasing diversity of the school-aged population has occurred within the context of the standards-based education movement and its accompanying high-stakes accountability testing.
As a consequence, more demands for higher levels of writing performance and for demonstration of content mastery through writing are being made of students and their teachers, while teachers are simultaneously facing a higher proportion of students who struggle not only with composing, but also with basic writing skills.
In some classrooms, writing instruction focuses almost exclusively on text transcription skills, such as handwriting and spelling, with few opportunities to compose meaningful, authentic text e. In other classrooms, frequent and varied opportunities exist to use the writing process to complete personally relevant and engaging writing tasks, but little time is devoted to teaching important writing skills and strategies, as it is assumed these can be mastered through incidental teaching and learning e.
Still in other classrooms, virtually no time is devoted to writing instruction or writing activities e. In perhaps a minority of classrooms, students are taught by exemplary educators who blend descriptive writing activities year 1985 skill and strategy instruction with writing workshop elements such as mini-lessons, sustained writing, conferencing, and sharing e.
Yet, for students with disabilities who tend to develop or exhibit chronic and pernicious writing difficulties, even this type of instruction may be inadequate. The box below presents several areas of difficulty for students with writing problems.
Less awareness of what constitutes good writing and how to produce it Restricted knowledge about genre-specific text structures e. Four core components of effective writing instruction constitute the foundation of any good writing program: Students should have meaningful writing experiences and be assigned authentic writing tasks that promote personal and collective expression, reflection, inquiry, discovery, and social change.
Routines should permit students to become comfortable with the writing process and move through the process over a sustained period of time at their own rate. Lessons should be designed to help students master craft elements e. A common language for shared expectations and feedback regarding writing quality might include the use of traits e.
The illustration below provides a graphic representation of the core components of effective writing instruction. Putting the pieces together: Of course, these are only the basic features of strong writing instruction.
If students are expected to become competent writers, then writing instruction must be approached in similar ways by all teachers who expect writing performance in their classrooms and must be sustained across the grades to support students as they gradually become accomplished writers.
Establishing routines A major step in implementing strong writing instruction is establishing routines for a daily writing instruction, b covering the whole writing curriculum, and c examining the valued qualities of good writing.
A typical writing lesson will have at least four parts: Mini-lesson 15 minutes Teacher-directed lesson on writing skills, composition strategies, and crafting elements e.
Check-in 5 minutes Students indicate where they are in the writing process i. The teacher asks students to identify how they plan to use what was taught during the mini-lesson in their writing activities for that day. Sharing 10 minutes Students identify how they used what was taught during the mini-lesson in their own writing and what challenges arose.
The teacher may discuss impressions from conferring with students; students share their writing it does not have to be a complete paper and may, in fact, only be initial ideas for writing with the group or a partner, while others provide praise and constructive feedback.
Students discuss next steps in the writing assignment. Publishing Celebration occasionally Students need a variety of outlets for their writing to make it purposeful and enjoyable, such as a class anthology of stories or poems, a grade-level newspaper or school magazine, a public reading in or out of school, a Web site for student writing, a pen pal, the library, and dramatizations.
Several tools can help the teacher maintain the integrity of this lesson structure. Examples of these tools follow Writing Notebook First, each student should have a writing notebook for a recording "seed" ideas for writing, such as memories, wishes, observations, quotations, questions, illustrations, and artifacts [e.
Writing Folders Second, writing folder in which students keep their papers should be in boxes that are labeled for different phases of the writing process.
These folder will help organize different versions of a piece of writing students generate, as well as the various projects students work on at a given time.
Visual Display Third, some means for visually displaying check-in status will help students and teacher monitor individual and class progress in writing. Each student might, for example, put a card in the appropriate slot of a class pocket chart labled with the stages of the writing process.
Or, the student might display the cube that represents the different writing stages the sixth side might simply be labeled "help" and would be used when teacher assistance is required. Some of the most important attributes include explicit modeling, regular conferencing with students and families, high expectations, encouragement, flexibility, cooperative learning arrangements, and ample opportunities for self-regulation.
On occasion, teachers may wish to assign topics or provide prompts for journaling or other writing activities. A list of potential prompts appropriate for late elementary and middle school grades is given in Writing Prompts. Using titles is a unique way of having students plan and write creative narratives that conform to a particular sub-genre or that have a distinctive tone.
Other ways of prompting creative narratives include pictures, story starters, and story endings these are particularly beneficial because they require a high degree of planning.
Numerous persuasive topic prompts are listed because persuasive writing often is overlooked until secondary school, and because such topics can engage students in critical thinking about relevant issues.Because writing-to-learn activities are crucial to many WAC programs (because they best meet teaching goals through writing), this guide presents a great deal of information on writing to learn (WTL), including a detailed rationale, examples, and logistical tips.
Descriptive Writing Descriptive writing has a unique power and appeal, as it evokes sights, smells, sounds, textures, and tastes.
Using description in your writing brings the world within your text to . Each season of the year is beautiful in some way. Think of which season is your favorite: winter, summer, spring or fall.
Think of what your town looks like during that season. What does it feel like? Is there a smell or taste to it? Now write an essay describing an outdoor scene during your favorite season of . Descriptive Writing Activities, Kids Writing, Writing Mini Lessons, Teaching Writing, Writing Ideas, Writing Prompts, Writing Worksheets, Teaching Ideas, Writing Images Find .
This learning activity helps students increase their skills in descriptive writing by following tips and suggestions from writer Virginia Hamilton. After reading about Hamilton, students write their descriptive pieces and publish them online.
A teacher's guide is included. English Year 3 Aove satisfactory Edition Page 1 of 20 Work sample portfolio summary Their texts include writing and images to express and develop in some detail experiences, events, information, ideas and characters. Uses descriptive noun groups, for example, ‘graceful swimmers’.
Plans writing. Information text: Turtles.