December 30, at 9: That story was actually pretty adorable. So I guess I will start by talking about the situational irony that is in this story. I did not expect that the story was going to end like that at all.
Classical sociology[ edit ] None of the 'founding fathers' of sociology produced a detailed study of literature, but they did develop ideas that were subsequently applied to literature by others. Emile Durkheim 's view of sociology as the study of externally defined social facts was redirected towards literature by Robert Escarpit.
In it was republished in book form and this version strongly influenced the Frankfurt School. A second edition, published inwas similarly influential on French structuralism.
The Theory of the Novel argued that, whilst the classical epic poem had given form to a totality of life pregiven in reality by the social integration of classical civilisation, the modern novel had become 'the epic of an age in which the extensive totality of life is no longer directly given'.
This was not a matter of individual talent, but of collective historical experience, because the French Revolution and the revolutionary and Napoleonic wars had made history for the first time a mass experience. Adorno's Notes to Literature is a collection of essays, the most influential of which is probably 'On Lyric Poetry and Society'.
It argued that poetic thought is a reaction against the commodification and reification of modern life, citing Goethe and Baudelaire as examples. It attempted to explain the socio-historical emergence of middle-class public opinion in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
Developing a new kind of institutional sociology of literature, it argued that the public sphere had been organised around literary salons in France, learned and literary societies in Germany, and coffee houses in England. These institutions sustained the early novel, newspaper and periodical press.
His Theorie der Avantgarde was published in German in and Lit analysis 12 English translation in He postulated a historical typology of aesthetic social relations, measured along three main axes, the function of the artwork, its mode of production and its mode of reception.
Bourgeois art, he argued, had as its function individual self-understanding and was produced and received individually.
It became a celebration in form of the liberation of art from religion, the court and, eventually, even the bourgeoisie. Modernist art was thus an autonomous social 'institution', the preserve of an increasingly autonomous intellectual class.
The 'historical avant-garde' of the inter-war years developed as a movement within and against modernism, he concluded, as an ultimately unsuccessful revolt against precisely this autonomy. His works included The Sociology of Literature, published in French in and in English translation inand The Book Revolution, published in French in and in English in In Durkheimian fashion, Escarpit aimed to concern himself only with the externally defined 'social facts' of literature, especially those registered in the book trade.
He extended the definition of literature to include all 'non-functional' writing and also insisted that literary success resulted from 'a convergence of intentions between author and reader'.
Lucien Febvre and Henri-Jean Martin's L'Apparition du livre, first published in French and in English translation as The Coming of the Book inis strictly speaking a work of social history Febvre was a leading figure in the Annales School of historiography.
But it is deeply sociological in character - Annales history was determinedly social scientific - and provides a systematic account of the long-run development of the European book trade the period covered is — Like Escarpit, Goldmann was influenced by Durkheim: The central task of the literary sociologist, he argued, was to bring out the objective meaning of the literary work by placing it in its historical context, studied as a whole.
Goldmann defined the creating subject as transindividual, that is, as an instance of Durkheim's 'collective consciousness'. The mediating agency between a social class and the work of literature then became the 'world vision', which binds the individual members of a social class together.
Goldmann's structuralism was 'genetic' because it sought to trace the genesis of literary structures in extra-literary phenomena.
But Goldmann also postulates a 'rigorous homology' between the literary form of the novel and the economic form of the commodity. The early novel, he argues, is concerned with individual biography and the problematic hero, but, as competitive capitalism evolves into monopoly capitalism, the problematic hero progressively disappears.
The period between the First and Second World Wars witnesses a temporary experiment with the community as collective hero: But the main line of development is characterised by the effort to write the novel of 'the absence of subjects'.
Andrew Milner 's John Milton and the English Revolution is essentially an application of Goldmann's genetic structuralism to the study of seventeenth-century English literature. Sociocriticism[ edit ] Goldmann's sociology of literature remains significant in itself and as a source of inspiration, both positive and negative, to the kind of 'sociocriticism' developed by Edmond Cros, Pierre Zima and their co-workers in France and Canada.
Neo-Marxian ideology critique[ edit ] Marx used the term ideology to denote the inner connectedness of culture, including literature, and class. The central novelty of Eagleton's Criticism and Ideology was its argument that literature could be understood as 'producing' ideology, in the sense of performing it.
The novelty of his position, however, was to argue for a 'double hermeneutic' simultaneously concerned with ideology and utopia.
Macherey, Eagleton and Jameson were literary critics by profession, but their applications of ideology-critique to literature are sociological in character, insofar as they seek to explain literary phenomena in extra-literary terms.
His first major contribution to the sociology of literature and other arts was La Distinction, published in French in and in English translation in It is based on detailed sociological surveys and ethnographic observation of the social distribution of cultural preferences.
Bourdieu identified three main zones of taste, 'legitimate', 'middle-brow' and 'popular', which he found to be dominant respectively in the educated sections of the dominant class, the middle classes and the working classes. He described legitimate taste as centred on an 'aesthetic disposition' to assert the primacy of form over function.Posted on November 14, , in Literature and tagged Analysis, Close Reading, English Literature, Literary Criticism, Poetry, Shakespeare, Shakespeare's Sonnets, Sonnet 12, Summary, When I .
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Literature and Culture. You are watching the news and shocked by the murders, abuse of children, acts or racism, and treatment of those with disabilities.