Murder of Kitty Genovese wiki Social Engineering refers to psychological manipulation of people into performing actions or divulging confidential information. A type of confidence trick for the purpose of information gathering, fraud, or system access, it differs from a traditional "con" in that it is often one of many steps in a more complex fraud scheme. Social Control informal means of control — Internalization of norms and values by a process known as socialization, which is defined as "the process by which an individual, born with behavioral potentialities of enormously wide range, is led to develop actual behavior which is confined to the narrower range of what is acceptable for him by the group standards.
They keep helping each other when I want them to work independently. They touch each other, can't seem to keep their materials to themselves, and every time I ask them a question about a fact, they answer with a story about their family! I have to get the kids to behave and learn!
As it turns out, it has a lot to do with it! The goal of Managing Diverse Classrooms is to look at the impact of culture on classroom organization and management.
Throughout this book, we examine how teachers equipped with a framework for understanding cultural differences have constructed novel ways of organizing their classrooms. After all, if the classroom is in chaos, how can learning take place?
In this book, we suggest that, in order to make good decisions about classroom organization and management, teachers need to understand the role of culture in human development and schooling. Understanding the role of culture does not mean learning endless facts about a great many cultures, but rather coming The culture influence on the collectivism see how culture shapes beliefs about learning and education.
As a result, teaching and learning become easier. In this chapter, we lay the foundation for the innovations described throughout the book.
We briefly define classroom management and culture so as to be explicit about what we mean by our terminology. In particular, we describe the intersection of classroom management and culture.
Finally, we describe two important studies that demonstrate how cultural value systems of individualism and collectivism can influence school settings. Both classroom organization and classroom management have the ultimate goal of making the classroom environment hospitable for learning.
We agree with Weinstein's observation that "the fundamental task of classroom management is to create an inclusive, supportive, and caring environment" p.
Organization, especially the social organization that includes how students communicate and interact with each other and the teacher, is also a key to an inclusive, supportive, and caring environment.
Every choice a teacher makes about organization or management reflects a cultural perspective, whether it is visible or not. Likewise, the teacher's choices will affect students in different ways, depending upon how the children have been socialized within their home cultures.
Thus, "effective classroom management requires knowledge of cultural backgrounds" Weinstein,p. Such knowledge is essential also to the development of caring relationships and the interpersonal skills needed to interact effectively with both students and their families.
Classroom Management Terms Classroom management—the set of strategies that teachers and students use to ensure a productive, harmonious learning environment to prevent disruptions in the learning process Classroom orchestration—the processes of structuring classroom interactions and activities in ways that harmonize values of home and school, drawing on students' cultural resources to resolve problems, avoid conflicts, and minimize the need for discipline Classroom organization—the ways that teachers structure classroom interactions and activities to promote learning, including communication, relationships, time, and the arrangement of the physical environment Discipline—any action or set of actions taken by the teacher to directly control student behavior a component of management Punishment—a form of discipline entailing either withdrawing a privilege or subjecting the student to unpleasant consequences What Do We Mean By Culture?
What, exactly, is culture? Our way of thinking about culture has been called a "cognitive" approach to culture because we are interested in the deep elements of culture related to thinking, teaching, learning, and making meaning Fetterman, We define culture as "the systems of values, beliefs, and ways of knowing that guide communities of people in their daily lives" Trumbull,p.
The concept of "systems of values and beliefs" is central to what we describe later in this chapter—the cultural values framework that has proven effective in helping teachers learn about two differing cultural values systems.
By "ways of knowing," we mean how people organize their world cognitively through language and other symbol systems.
It includes how they approach learning and problem solving, how they construct knowledge, and how they pass it on from generation to generation. Culture is manifest in how groups of people carry on in their daily lives. For example, some people like to stay together as a family for all kinds of weekend activities, whereas others prefer to "do their own thing.
What happens in the classroom is primarily reflective of the cultural values of the school and the teacher. This similarity results from two observable facts: For this reason, teachers from nondominant cultural groups have often learned to suppress their intuitive cultural knowledge in favor of the "best practices" that they learned in school Hollins, ; Lipka, ; Trumbull et al.
The Bridging Cultures Project The examples that fill these pages come from the Bridging Cultures Project, a collaborative action research project involving seven elementary school teachers in classrooms with large numbers of immigrant Latino students.
Unlike most teacher training interventions that are short term, the Bridging Cultures Project has been a longitudinal professional development and research endeavor. The project began with three professional development workshops completed in four months, and it continued with a series of whole-group meetings, classroom observations, and interviews over a period of five years.
Four professional researchers collaborated to develop and carry out the project: Greenfield's graduate student, Ms. Blanca Quiroz now Dr.
Elise Trumbull, an applied linguist and, at the time, senior research associate with WestEd, the regional educational laboratory based in San Francisco.The Culture of Critique: An Evolutionary Analysis of Jewish Involvement in Twentieth-Century Intellectual and Political Movements By Kevin MacDonald Preface to the First Paperback Edition.
Cultural individualism-collectivism has a direct influence on communicative style.
For in- stance, low and high-context communication is the predominant forms of communication in. The collectivist culture emphasizes personal achievements and individual rights.
Although the practice of group work is growing in importance, every individual still has the right to their own opinion and is expected to contribute and reflect them. Finally, we describe two important studies that demonstrate how cultural value systems of individualism and collectivism can influence school settings.
What Do We Mean By Classroom Management?
In Figure we define the terms used throughout the book. Cultural values influence a myriad of topics—education, wealth distribution, government oversight—but the extent to which these values influence environmental attitudes is not well documented.
a culture is a set of behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group and transmitted from one generation to the next. Cultural norms are understood rules that inform members of a culture about accepted and expected behaviors.