The emergence of modern Europe, — Economy and society The 16th century was a period of vigorous economic expansion. This expansion in turn played a major role in the many other transformations—social, political, and cultural—of the early modern age. By the population in most areas of Europe was increasing after two centuries of decline or stagnation.
The end of the Thirty Years War produced a number of dramatic consequences and altered Western Europe in significant religious, political, and social ways.
Generally speaking, the post-war period produced the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire and the subsequent fall of the Hapsburg powers. The later divisions that occurred made Europe more like it is now with the Catholic areas in the south and the Lutherans farther north and more importantly, it took the central power from the Catholic Church.
It also worked to quelled some of the religious struggles with the eventual Peace of Westphalia. The war also had a large impact on society as it decimated a large portion of the German population, destroyed crops, aided in the spread of disease and obliterated the German economy from the small to large scale.
The average people living in Europe during this time were perhaps the most affected by the war. The armies were huge and in order to fund them, states had to raise taxes.
In addition, many of the mercenaries went through villages and towns taking all they could from already destitute towns and this, coupled with the increasing demands of the state, planted the seed of anger toward governments that would later emerge throughout the Enlightenment and future rebellions.
Although it was not easy to come to a resolution the Peace of Westphalia was signed in and as a result, Western Europe was changed politically. Because of the war, a number of important geographical consequences occurred; Germany was broken up, the Swiss Confederation and the Netherlands were declared as autonomous nations, but most importantly, the Holy Roman Empire lost power and began to decline from the signing of the Peace until modernity.
Another significant development that arose in the wake of the Peace of Westphalia is that France and Sweden came to the forefront of European commerce, pushing Spain out and changing the course of European history up until that point. The Spanish Hapsburgs were no longer the primary power and were eventually forced to declare Dutch and Swiss independence.
The political tides changed when the Holy Roman Empire was no longer the center of Europe as other countries began to take over. This would become even more important later with the rise of secularism as a result of the Enlightenment.
In addition to the more geographical political changes, other alterations occurred throughout Europe such as a new way of going about warfare. The Thirty Years War required vast armies of mercenary troops and this, although militarily wise, was a large drain on state resources. All parties involved in the war went nearly broke because of the size of their respective armies and this in turn had a devastating impact on the economies as a whole.
In addition to this, new bureaucracies were needed to keep up with the increasing demands of state and such changes are still present today in European politics.
Also of related importance is the fact that in order to fund these vast armies the states were pressed to collect an increasingly higher number of taxes. This meant more paperwork and of course, more anger on the part of the working people and peasants—those who bore the financial brunt of the costly wars.
Such unfair taxation would certainly be called into question as the years wore on, particularly in France, but it is clear that the excessive spending seen during the Thirty Years War had an impact on the economy and thus the peasants.
Inward political strife would soon follow based on the external struggles that began before the Thirty Years War.
When discussing the last years of the Thirty Years War it is almost easy to forget that it all began because of religious differences rather than those based on politics and geography.
One consequence of the end of the war was that the Holy Roman Empire and the Catholic Hapsburgs would no longer dictate the religious beliefs to a large portion of Europeans. Instead, after the war was over and princes of Germany were allowed to declare their own affiliations, Western Europe changed a great deal.
Another important aspect of the Peace of Westphalia in terms of overall European history and its religious struggles, is that after its was agreed upon, all the princes within Germany had the right to declare their provinces as either Catholic, Lutheran or Calvinist.
This allowance created divisions throughout Europe based on religious affiliation with the Catholics in the south of Europe, the Lutherans in central Germany, and the Calvinists in the northern part of Europe.
While this is not to say that the close of the war mended relations between those of diverse faiths, this separation made it so that this was the last real religious war fought.Why the real history of the Peace of Westphalia in 17th-century Europe offers a model for bringing stability to the Middle East.
Ending the new Thirty Years war. but in the early 17th century the “Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation” was the disaster zone of Europe. It was politically fragmented, with the various princes, bishops.
Ended Thirty Years War, its consequences weakened the Hapsburg states of Spain and Austria, strengthened France by awarding it German Territory, ended religious warfare in Europe, developed the sovereign states system Early 17th-century period of boyar efforts to regain power and foreign invasion after the death of Ivan IV without an heir.
The Thirty Years' War was headed for its beginning in when a Habsburg prince from Austria, Ferdinand II (brother of the now deceased Philip II of Spain) was chosen as king of timberdesignmag.comand was a pious man, attending masses at all hours and a monarch who .
Thirty Years War () A series of European wars that were partially a Catholic-Protestant religious conflict. It was primarily a battle between France and their . Aug 21, · The Thirty Years’ War was a 17th-century religious conflict fought primarily in central Europe.
Thirty years war: Causes and Effects. The official end of the Thirty Years' War in Germany, recognized Calvinism as a legitmatereligion, Swiss Independence as well as the formation of the Dutch Republic.
Limited Monarchy. In the early to middle part of the 16th century, the French Protestant John Calvin created the doctrine and.