Arab slave traders and their captives along the Ruvuma river in today's Tanzania and Mozambique19th-century engraving. David Livingstone wrote of the slave trades:
Longstanding ideas and prejudices merged with aims to control land and labor, a dynamic reinforced by ongoing observation and theorization of non-European peoples.
Rather, it was a heterogeneous compound of physical, intellectual, and moral characteristics passed on from one generation to another. Drawing upon the frameworks of scripture, natural and moral philosophy, and natural history, scholars endlessly debated whether different races shared a common ancestry, whether traits were fixed or susceptible to environmentally produced change, and whether languages or the body provided the best means to trace descent.
Racial theorization boomed in the U. The Renaissance increased circulation of classical theories. Those of Galen stressed the influence of geography upon peoples. Climate and individual bodily humors possessed corresponding properties black bile was cold, yellow bile hot, blood dry, and phlegm wet.
Because humors counterbalanced the surrounding environment, preponderant humors animated individuals and nations with characters either melancholic, choleric, sanguine, or phlegmatic.
By the late 16th century, when Queen Elizabeth intensified colonization of Ireland, English Protestants insisted that Irish Catholicism was little better than paganism.
Initially, the Spanish employed the theory of natural slavery, a concept devised by Aristotle and reworked for Christians by Thomas Aquinas. Dominion was just because these people were uncivil, supposedly lacking cities and mastery of nature. The empires of Mesoamerica and the Andes, however, undermined this view.
The Mexica Aztecs and Incas possessed hierarchical societies, courteous speech, impressive cities, flourishing commerce, and stone pyramids. While such attainments seemed to fulfill classical understandings of civility, theorists such as Francisco de Vitoria insisted that they did not live according to the law of nature.
Charges of human sacrifice and cannibalism, which Catholic and Protestant invaders leveled against numerous inhabitants of the Americas, were especially damning. Indians were fully human, but only conversion would allow them to fulfill their human potential. Numerous writers elaborated the view of Indians as fundamentally deficient, but capable of being raised to Christianity and civility.
Other Europeans also embraced this view. The Roman empire and the gospel had brought civilization to Britain, which, in turn, would bring it to North America. Some accounts asserted that the surrounding climate or celestial bodies, with the former influenced by the latter, explained human diversity.
In the southern hemisphere especially, where sailors found constellations different from those known in northern skies, astronomy offered a window into human diversity. Climate was thought to affect complexion—Indians were variously labeled tawny, swarthy, purple, olive, and chestnut, among others—but so too might customs.
The use of bear grease and paint darkened the skin of infants allegedly born white over time, binding infants in cradle boards flattened their skulls, and raising children to ignore pain ostensibly produced adult women who could give birth painlessly and men able to withhold cries even as they endured torture.
Alternately, some reports offered shared ancestry as an explanation for the similarity of widely separated peoples.
Native—settler conflict, such as the Anglo-Powhatan wars and the Pequot War in the s—s, often catalyzed such views.
Colonists were ignorant of microbes, but they also noted that Native people suffered disproportionately from smallpox, influenza, and other diseases even as their own population grew rapidly in the New World. Some also suspected that constitutional differences between Europeans and Indians explained perpetual charges of Indian drunkenness.
Theories of Native inferiority in mind and body provided Europeans, simultaneously, a compelling claim to the land and reassurance that colonists would not degenerate in an alien environment.
Comparisons of contemporary Indians to ancient peoples in the work of Acosta, Lafitau, and others converged with political theorization on the historical development of property and the interrelationship of environment, laws, and customs in the work of scholars such as Samuel Pufendorf and Montesquieu, as well as the psychology of John Locke, which held that the mind possessed no innate ideas and that words were merely conventional labels for things and concepts, to provide the foundation for theories of the progress of civilization.
One view, best represented by Etienne Bonnot de Condillac, held that human advancement came from linguistic and mental refinement. Over time, the invention of new and more precise signs allowed for more analytical thinking and, thus, advancement in the arts and sciences, though precision came at the price of imagery in speech and writing.
Another view, best represented by Adam Smith, stressed the appetites and passions over reason. Distinct modes of subsistence hunting, shepherding, agriculture, and commerce led to distinct forms of social organization.16thth centuries african americans Tens of thousands of slaves in America as a result of reduced migration and a need for a dependable work force and cheap labor.
Discriminating slave laws began to increase as well as the triangular trade. During the nineteenth century child labor laws were enacted in England, America, France, and Germany, with rhetorical emphasis on the need to protect children from exploitation.
That concept of exploitation implicitly suggested the notion of child abuse. The Europeans - Why they left and why it matters Discussion Goals. To review the geopolitical realities of Europe in the Middle Ages. To understand the political, social, and economic systems of feudalism and emerging mercantilism in 15th, 16th, and 17th century Europe.
Child Labor in the 19th Century. Print Reference this.
Published: 23rd March, Last Edited: Children of poor and working-class families had worked for centuries before industrialization - assisting around the house or helping in the family's enterprise when they were capable.
Child labor, as much as it is criticized for its faults. During the period from the late 19th century and early 20th century, demand for the labor-intensive harvesting of rubber drove frontier expansion and slavery in Latin America and elsewhere.
Indigenous peoples were enslaved as part of the rubber boom in Ecuador, Peru, Colombia, and Brazil. . Essays and criticism on Child Labor in Nineteenth-Century Literature - Critical Essays. Child Labor in Nineteenth-Century Literature In .