We soon forget the crowd of victims who have fallen in the course of innumerable battles, not only because this is a destiny inevitable in war, but because those who thus fell might also have given death to their enemies, and did not lose their lives without defending themselves. Where the danger and the advantage are equal, our wonder ceases, and even pity itself is in some measure lessened; but where the father of an innocent family is delivered up to the hands of error, passion, or fanaticism; where the accused person has no other defense but his virtue; where the arbiters of his destiny have nothing to risk in putting him to death but their having been mistaken, and where they may murder with impunity by decree, then every one is ready to cry out, every one fears for himself, and sees that no person's life is secure in a court erected to watch over the lives of citizens, and every voice unites in demanding vengeance. In this strange affair, we find religion, suicide, and parricide. The object of inquiry was, whether a father and a mother had murdered their own son in order to please God, and whether a brother had murdered his brother, or a friend his friend; or whether the judges had to reproach themselves with having broken on the wheel an innocent father, or with having acquitted a guilty mother, brother, and friend.
It consists of three parts: Despite its atypical form, the Apology is clearly important for understanding the significance of Socrates for Plato, and it has been remarked frequently that through him the work functions virtually as a foundation myth for the Western philosophical tradition.
The Apology is alluded to frequently in the Platonic dialogues. Two take place before the trial. At the conclusion of that hearing he meets Euthyphro, who has come to prosecute his father for the murder of a slave, and commences the dialogue named after him.
A discussion of their respective circumstances 1a—2b leads to the discussion of holiness that engages them for the rest of the dialogue. Two dialogues also are set after the Apology, and so implicitly offer a commentary on the trial. As a result, the bibliography related to the Apology, and to the trial of Socrates, is vast.
General Overviews It is much less common than it once was to treat the Apology primarily as a good-faith effort to record the facts of the historical trial of Socrates.
Still, general studies of the work often treat both the Apology and the trial together in parallel.
The background of the Apology is surveyed generally in Guthriewhose comprehensive History of Greek philosophy also contains a substantial discussion of the Sophists see Socrates and the Sophists.
The best summary of the primary sources for the events surrounding the actual trial is Brickhouse and Smith see also Rowe A more succinct summary is available in Nails For the historical testimonia pertaining to many of the individuals involved in the trial, see also Biography.
There are also numerous general interpretations of the Apology. ReeveWestand Strauss provide detailed interpretations of the text from a philosophical perspective.
For nonspecialists, Colaiaco and Waterfield offer analysis of the trial on the basis of the Apology and supply substantial cultural context. New York and London: For the general reader. Like Brickhouse and SmithColaiaco accepts the Apology as essentially historical see also Stonecited under Socrates and Athenian Politics.
A history of Greek philosophy. Volume 3 also discusses Socrates and the Sophists see Socrates and the Sophists. The trial and death of Socrates. In A companion to Socrates. A short sketch of the basic issues see Nails in Biography for more detailed prosopography.
Socrates in the Apology: Reeve discusses the work within its cultural contexts but primarily with a view to the philosophical significance of the arguments. In Studies in Platonic political philosophy.
By Leo Strauss; edited with an introduction by Thomas Pangle, 38— Waterfield has a tendency to go beyond the evidence in supplying the cultural background but often scores. Particularly valuable is his imaginative rendering of the speech of Anytus for the prosecution.
An interpretation, with a new translation.Introduction. The Apology of Socrates takes its name from Plato’s version of the defense speech (Greek, apologia) given by Socrates at his timberdesignmag.com date of its composition is unknown, but the work is generally believed to have been composed after the publication of Polycrates’s Accusation of Socrates (c.
) but before Plato’s first voyage to Sicily (). Tomorrow is the big event on Stoicism for Everyday Life in London, at which Mark Vernon and I will be discussing the relationship between Stoicism and Christianity. Mark has an interesting story to tell – he was a priest, who then left Christianity and found an alternative in Greek philosophy.
The Socratic method is one of the most famous, least used, and least understood teaching and conversation practices. The Socratic method of questioning is named after the Greek philosopher Socrates ( BC– BC), who lived in Athens Greece.
BECK index Socrates, Xenophon, and Plato Empedocles Socrates Xenophon's Socrates Defense of Socrates Memoirs of Socrates Symposium Oikonomikos Xenophon. Comments on the Euthyphro using the G.M.A.
Grube translation (Plato, Five Dialogues, Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, Meno, Phaedo, Hackett Publishing Company, , pp. )The Euthyphro,, is one of the short dialogues by which Plato commemorated Socrates's technique and manner in questioning timberdesignmag.com structure of the dialogue, .
It was one of the rules which, above all others, made Doctor Franklin the most amiable of men in society, "never to contradict anybody." If he was urged to announce an opinion, he did it rather by asking questions, as if for information, or by suggesting doubts.